16.1 Electrical Safety
Electricity travels in closed circuits, and its normal route is through a conductor. Shock occurs when the body becomes a part of the electric circuit. Electric shock can cause direct injuries such as electrical burns, arc burns, and thermal contact burns. It can also cause injuries of an indirect or secondary nature in which involuntary muscle reaction from the electric shock can cause bruises, bone fractures, and even death resulting from collisions or falls. Shock normally occurs in one of three ways.
The person must be in contact with ground and must contact with:
- Both wires of the electric circuit, or
- One wire of the energized circuit and the ground, or
- A metallic part that has become energized by being in contact with an energized wire.
The severity of the shock received when a person becomes a part of an electric circuit is affected by three primary factors:
- The amount of current flowing through the body (measured in amperes).
- The path of the current through the body.
- The length of time the body is in the circuit.
Other factors that may affect the severity of shock are the frequency of the current, the phase of the heart cycle when shock occurs, and the general health of the person prior to shock. The effects of an electrical shock can range from a barely perceptible tingle to immediate cardiac arrest. Although there are no absolute limits or even known values that show the exact injury from any given amperage, the table above shows the general relationship between the degree of injury and the amount of amperage for a 60-cycle hand-to-foot path of one second's duration of shock.
|1 Milliampere||Perception level. Just a faint tingle.|
|5 Milliamperes||Slight shock felt. Average individual can let go. However, strong involuntary reactions to shocks in this range can lead to injuries.|
|6-30 Milliamperes||Painful shock. Muscular control lost.|
|50-150 Milliamperes||Extreme pain, respiratory arrest, severe muscular contractions. Individual cannot let go. Death is possible.|
|1,000-4,300 Milliamperes||Ventricular fibrillation. Muscular contraction and nerve damage occur. Death is most likely.|
|10,000-Milliamperes||Cardiac arrest, severe burns and probable death.|
As this table illustrates, a difference of less than 100 milliamperes exists between a current that is barely perceptible and one that can kill. Muscular contraction caused by stimulation may not allow the victim to free himself/herself from the circuit, and the increased duration of exposure increases the dangers to the shock victim. For example, a current of 100 milliamperes for 3 seconds is equivalent to a current of 900 milliamperes applied for 0.03 seconds in causing fibrillation. The so-called low voltages can be extremely dangerous because, all other factors being equal, the degree of injury is proportional to the length of time the body is in the circuit. Simply put, low voltage does not mean low hazard.
In the event of an accident involving electricity, if the individual is down or unconscious, or not breathing: CALL Cornell University Police at 911 (607-255-1111 from a cell phone or off campus phone) immediately. If an individual must be physically removed from an electrical source, it is always best to eliminate the power source first (i.e.: switch off the circuit breaker) but time, or circumstance may not allow this option - be sure to use a nonconductive item such as a dry board. Failure to think and react properly could make you an additional victim. If the individual is not breathing and you have been trained in CPR, have someone call Cornell University Police and begin CPR IMMEDIATELY!